|Project Monitoring and Control (PMC)||
|The CMMi easy button concept and disclaimer
Disclaimer: The opinions expressed here are the authors
and do not express a position on the subject from the
Software Engineering Institute (SEI) or any organization
or SEI Partner affiliated with the SEI.
The concept of The CMMi easy button is to be able to
jump start SQA software professionals in establishing an
effective Software process Improvement (SPI) framework that is based on CMMi theories and best practices.
CMMI, CMM, and Capability Maturity Model are registered
in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
CMM Integration, SCAMPI, and IDEAL are service marks of
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|Causal Analysis and Resolution (CAR)||Configuration Management (CM)||Decision Analysis and Resolution (DAR)|
|Integrated Project Management +IPPD (IPM+IPPD)||Measurement and Analysis (MA)||Organizational Innovation and Deployment (OID)|
|Organizational Process Definition +IPPD (OPD+IPPD)||Organizational Process Focus (OPF)||Organizational Process Performance (OPP)|
|Organizational Training (OT)||Product Integration (PI)||Project Monitoring and Control (PMC)|
|Project Planning (PP)||Process and Product Quality Assurance (PPQA)||Quantitative Project Management (QPM)|
|Requirements Development (RD)||Requirements Management (REQM)||Risk Management (RSKM)|
|Supplier Agreement Management (SAM)||Technical Solution (TS)||Validation (VAL)|
|The CMMi Easy button notes on Project Monitoring and Control (PMC)||Project Monitoring and Control (PMC) purpose and introductory notes|
|Specific Goals and Practices|
|Specific Goal 1 (SG 1) Monitor Project Against Plan (SP 1.*)|
|SP 1.1 Monitor Project Planning Parameters||SP 1.2 Monitor Commitments||SP 1.3 Monitor Project Risks||SP 1.4 Monitor Data Management|
|SP 1.5 Monitor Stakeholder Involvement||SP 1.6 Conduct Progress Reviews||SP 1.7 Conduct Milestone Reviews||.|
|Specific Goal 2 (SG 2) Manage Corrective Action to Closure (SP 2.*)|
|SP 2.1 Analyze Issues||SP 2.2 Take Corrective Action||SP 2.3 Manage Corrective Action||.|
|Generic Goals and Practices|
|Generic Goal 1 (GG 1) Achieve Specific Goals, Generic Practices (GP 1.*)|
|GP 1.1 Perform Specific Practices||.||.||.|
|Generic Goal 2 (GG 2) Institutionalize a Managed Process, Generic Practices (GP 2.*)|
|GP 2.1 Establish an Organizational Policy||GP 2.2 Plan the Process||GP 2.3 Provide Resources||GP 2.4 Assign Responsibility|
|GP 2.5 Train People||GP 2.6 Manage Configurations||GP 2.7 Identify and Involve Relevant Stakeholders||GP 2.8 Monitor and Control the Process|
|GP 2.9 Objectively Evaluate Adherence||GP 2.10 Review Status with Higher Level Management||.||.|
|Generic Goal 3 (GG 3) Institutionalize a Defined Process, Generic Practices (GP 3.*)|
|GP 3.1 Establish a Defined Process||GP 3.2 Collect Improvement Information||.||.|
|Generic Goal 4 (GG 4) Institutionalize a Quantitatively Managed Process, Generic Practices (GP 4.*)|
|GP 4.1 Establish Quantitative Objectives for the Process||GP 4.2 Stabilize Subprocess Performance||.||.|
|Generic Goal 5 (GG 5) Institutionalize an Optimizing Process, Generic Practices (GP 5.*)|
|GP 5.1 Ensure Continuous Process Improvement||GP 5.2 Correct Root Causes of Problems||.||.|
The CMMi Easy button notes on Project Monitoring and Control (PMC)
Given a project plan it follows that activities are needed to monitor the progress of the project and take corrective action when appropriate. These monitoring and corrective action activities are the goals and practices of the project monitoring and control (PMC) process area of CMMi-DEV.
Project control and monitoring within the devilís triangle
For the purposes of project control and monitoring it is useful to refer to the three key control objective areas of:
The cost of the project can be reduced if the quality is also reduced.
In this relationship, the quality objective refers to the complete value (or goal) of the project. In most projectís this is a frequent compromise, in that features may be reduced or eliminated in order to bring in the project on budget.
The cost of the project can be reduced if the time to deliver is increased.
At first this seems counter intuitive, as the old adage time equals money seems to contradict this. Consider a situation where you just check your email every Friday morning, in this case the overall cost of checking email is reduced but the time to react to anything has been extended.
The situation where the time is reduced is covered by a reduction of quality (that is reducing cost and quality). In this sense the adage time is money does apply but in essence we have the two broad compromises cost versus quality and cost versus time to deliver.
Project monitoring and control of project costs.
One of the main project cost drivers will be human resources, or hours booked against a given activity. In order to monitor peopleís hours some form of time tracking (time sheet) needs to be utilized. The categories of time, for the project, should match the activities on the chart used for planning. The level of project control desired will determine the level of detail used for the activity planning and project monitoring.
The level of detail for monitoring and controlling costs will vary from project to project as the main criteria is the risk of this (cost) parameter going out of control and the consequences of that out of control event. In essence you should only plan to the level of detail needed to be able to monitor and control the project costs. That said the activities laid out in the project plan do have to be reflective of the cost (resource) driving activities of the project.
Project costs will quickly go out of control if:-
Without careful and considered planning of the project costs (including the resource activity structure) the monitoring and control of the project is just a procession and becomes an Ďit is what it isí end goal rather than an exercise in project cost control.
One fine note is that as the project continues it will become evident if the cost estimates are realistic and if overruns look likely then the project plan should be revisited. This reaction to events (i.e. corrective action) is also a major part of project monitoring and control within CMMi. The idea is to capture measures that significantly deviate from the plan, where significant means that a projectís objective may be compromised. Most, if not all projects have a cost objective (i.e. budget).
Project monitoring and control of the project timeline.
The scheduling of resources, including individuals allocating their time, is one aspect of monitoring the project timeline that is critical. The more scarce and valuable the resource (i.e. a test performance lab facility) the more critical the need to align the consumption of that resource. This means making sure all the dependent activities are completed, in time, and the other dependent resources are also available at the appropriate time.
The use of milestones, that is a period check to see if certain planned work is completed, is a common method of verifying if the project schedule is on track. As with costs monitoring any scheduling risks need to be reflected in the project plan and appropriate action has to be taken when and significant deviation from the planned schedule is detected.
Project monitoring and control of the project deliverables (i.e. the quality objectives)
Within the software project, there are three other process areas that are concerned with the quality of the work products being produced. These process areas are Validation, Verification and Quantitative Project Management (QPM). The verification and validation process areas are primarily concerned with the quality control of the work products, such as requirements, specifications and test plans etc. The QPM process area is more concerned with Ďquantitativelyí managing the projectís defined processes to achieve the projectís established quality and process-performance objectives.
In terms of monitoring the quality (or value) aspect of the project there are a number of overlapping activities, which are further discussed in the appropriate process areas. In terms of project monitoring and control it is important to note that the overall progress of the project is the primary objective.
CMMi Easy button Summary
The quality of both work products and appropriate work processes being followed are further discussed within the Verification, Validation and Quantitative Project Management process areas as they are an essential part of any software continuous process improvement framework.
Project Monitoring and Control (PMC)
A Project Management Process Area at Maturity Level 2
The purpose of Project Monitoring and Control (PMC) is to provide an understanding of the projectís progress so that appropriate corrective actions can be taken when the projectís performance deviates significantly from the plan.
A projectís documented plan is the basis for monitoring activities, communicating status, and taking corrective action. Progress is primarily determined by comparing actual work product and task attributes, effort, cost, and schedule to the plan at prescribed milestones or control levels within the project schedule or work breakdown structure (WBS). Appropriate visibility enables timely corrective action to be taken when performance deviates significantly from the plan. A deviation is significant if, when left unresolved, it precludes the project from meeting its objectives.
The term ďproject planĒ is used throughout these practices to refer to the overall plan for controlling the project.
When actual status deviates significantly from the expected values, corrective actions are taken as appropriate. These actions may require replanning, which may include revising the original plan, establishing new agreements, or including additional mitigation activities within the current plan.
Related Process Areas.
Refer to the Project Planning process area for more information about the project plan, including how it specifies the appropriate level of project monitoring, the measures used to monitor progress, and known risks.
Refer to the Measurement and Analysis process area for information about the process of measuring, analyzing, and recording information.
Specific Practices by Goal
SG 1 Monitor Project Against Plan
Actual performance and progress of the project are monitored against the project plan.
SP 1.1 Monitor Project Planning Parameters
Monitor the actual values of the project planning parameters against the project plan.
Project planning parameters constitute typical indicators of project progress and performance and include attributes of work products and tasks, cost, effort, and schedule. Attributes of the work products and tasks include such items as size, complexity, weight, form, fit, or function.
Monitoring typically involves measuring the actual values of project planning parameters, comparing actual values to the estimates in the plan, and identifying significant deviations. Recording actual values of the project planning parameters includes recording associated contextual information to help understand the measures. An analysis of the impact that significant deviations have on determining what corrective actions to take is handled in the second specific goal and its specific practices in this process area.
Typical Work Products
Progress monitoring typically includes the following:
Effort and cost monitoring typically includes the following:
Refer to the Project Planning process area for information about the attributes of work products and tasks.
Monitoring the attributes of the work products and tasks typically includes the following:
Refer to the Project Planning process area for information about planned resources.
Examples of resources include the following:
Refer to the Project Planning process area for information about planning for knowledge and skills needed to perform the project.
Monitoring the knowledge and skills of the project personnel typically includes the following:
SP 1.2 Monitor Commitments
Monitor commitments against those identified in the project plan.
Typical Work Products
Subpractice 2: Identify commitments that have not been satisfied or that are at significant risk of not being satisfied.
Subpractice 3: Document the results of the commitment reviews.
SP 1.3 Monitor Project Risks
Monitor risks against those identified in the project plan.
Refer to the Project Planning process area for more information about identifying project risks.
Refer to the Risk Management process area for more information about risk management activities.
Typical Work Products
Subpractice 2: Revise the documentation of the risks, as additional information becomes available, to incorporate changes.
Subpractice 3: Communicate risk status to relevant stakeholders.
Examples of risk status include the following:
Monitor the management of project data against the project plan.
Refer to the Plan for Data Management specific practice in the Project Planning process area for more information about identifying the types of data that should be managed and how to plan for their management.
Once the plans for the management of project data are made, the management of that data must be monitored to ensure that those plans are accomplished.
Typical Work Products
Subpractice 2: Identify and document significant issues and their impacts.
Subpractice 3: Document the results of data management activity reviews.
SP 1.5 Monitor Stakeholder Involvement
Monitor stakeholder involvement against the project plan.
Refer to the Plan Stakeholder Involvement specific practice in the Project Planning process area for more information about identifying relevant stakeholders and planning the appropriate involvement with them.
Once the stakeholders are identified and the extent of their involvement within the project is specified in project planning, that involvement must be monitored to ensure that the appropriate interactions are occurring.
Typical Work Products
Subpractice: 2 Identify and document significant issues and their impacts.
Subpractice: 3 Document the results of the stakeholder involvement status reviews.
SP 1.6 Conduct Progress Reviews
Periodically review the project's progress, performance, and issues.
Progress reviews are reviews on the project to keep stakeholders informed. These project reviews can be informal reviews and may not be specified explicitly in the project plans.
Typical Work Products
Managers, staff members, customers, end users, suppliers, and other relevant stakeholders within the organization are included in the reviews as appropriate.
Subpractice 2: Review the results of collecting and analyzing measures for controlling the project.
Refer to the Measurement and Analysis process area for more information about the process for measuring and analyzing project performance data.
Subpractice 3: Identify and document significant issues and deviations from the plan.
Subpractice 4: Document change requests and problems identified in any of the work products and processes.
Refer to the Configuration Management process area for more information about how changes are managed.
Subpractice 5: Document the results of the reviews.
Subpractice 6: Track change requests and problem reports to closure.
SP 1.7 Conduct Milestone Reviews
Review the accomplishments and results of the project at selected project milestones.
Refer to the Project Planning process area for more information about milestone planning.
Milestone reviews are planned during project planning and are typically formal reviews.
Typical Work Products
Managers, staff members, customers, end users, suppliers, and other relevant stakeholders within the organization are included in the milestone reviews as appropriate.
Subpractice 2: Review the commitments, plan, status, and risks of the project.
Subpractice 3: Identify and document significant issues and their impacts.
Subpractice 4: Document the results of the review, action items, and decisions.
Subpractice 5: Track action items to closure.
SG 2 Manage Corrective Action to Closure
Corrective actions are managed to closure when the project's performance or results deviate significantly from the plan.
Many product integration problems arise from unknown or uncontrolled aspects of both internal and external interfaces. Effective management of product component interface requirements, specifications, and designs helps ensure that implemented interfaces will be complete and compatible.
SP 2.1 Analyze Issues
Collect and analyze the issues and determine the corrective actions necessary to address the issues.
Typical Work Products
Issues are collected from reviews and the execution of other processes.
Examples of issues to be gathered include the following:
Refer to the Project Planning process area for information about corrective action criteria.
Corrective action is required when the issue, if left unresolved, may prevent the project from meeting its objectives.
SP 2.2 Take Corrective Action
Take corrective action on identified issues.
Typical Work Products
Refer to the Project Planning process area for more information about the project plan when replanning is needed.
Examples of potential actions include the following:
Subpractice 3: Negotiate changes to internal and external commitments.
SP 2.3 Manage Corrective Action
Manage corrective actions to closure.
Typical Work Products
Subpractice 2: Analyze results of corrective actions to determine the effectiveness of the corrective actions.
Subpractice 3: Determine and document appropriate actions to correct deviations from planned results for corrective actions.
Lessons learned as a result of taking corrective action can be inputs to planning and risk management processes.
Generic Practices by Goal
GG 1 Achieve Specific Goals
The process supports and enables achievement of the specific goals of the process area by transforming identifiable input work products to produce identifiable output work products.
GP 1.1 Perform Specific Practices
Perform the specific practices of the project monitoring and control process to develop work products and provide services to achieve the specific goals of the process area.
GG 2 Institutionalize a Managed Process
The process is institutionalized as a managed process.
GP 2.1 Establish an Organizational Policy
Establish and maintain an organizational policy for planning and performing the project monitoring and control process.
This policy establishes organizational expectations for monitoring performance against the project plan and managing corrective action to closure when actual performance or results deviate significantly from the plan.
GP 2.2 Plan the Process
Establish and maintain the plan for performing the project monitoring and control process.
This plan for performing the project monitoring and control process can be part of (or referenced by) the project plan, as described in the Project Planning process area.
GP 2.3 Provide Resources
Provide adequate resources for performing the project monitoring and control process, developing the work products, and providing the services of the process.
Examples of resources provided include the following tools:
Assign responsibility and authority for performing the process, developing the work products, and providing the services of the project monitoring and control process.
GP 2.5 Train People
Train the people performing or supporting the project monitoring and control process as needed.
Examples of training topics include the following:
Place designated work products of the project monitoring and control process under appropriate levels of control.
Examples of work products placed under control include the following:
Identify and involve the relevant stakeholders of the project monitoring and control process as planned.
Refer to Table 6.2 on page 95 in Generic Goals and Generic Practices for more information about the relationship between generic practice 2.7 and the Monitor Stakeholder Involvement practice in the Project Monitoring and Control process area.
Examples of activities for stakeholder involvement include the following:
Monitor and control the project monitoring and control process against the plan for performing the process and take appropriate corrective action.
Refer to Table 6.2 on page 95 in Generic Goals and Generic Practices for more information about the relationship between generic practice 2.8 and the Project Monitoring and Control process area.
Examples of measures and work products used in monitoring and controlling include the following:
Objectively evaluate adherence of the project monitoring and control process against its process description, standards, and procedures, and address noncompliance.
Examples of activities reviewed include the following:
Review the activities, status, and results of the project monitoring and control process with higher level management and resolve issues.
GG 3 Institutionalize a Defined Process
The process is institutionalized as a defined process.
This generic goal's appearance here reflects its location in the continuous representation.
GP 3.1 Establish a Defined Process
Establish and maintain the description of a defined project monitoring and control process.
GP 3.2 Collect Improvement Information
Collect work products, measures, measurement results, and improvement information derived from planning and performing the project monitoring and control process to support the future use and improvement of the organizationís processes and process assets.
Examples of work products, measures, measurement results, and improvement information include the following:
The process is institutionalized as a quantitatively managed process.
GP 4.1 Establish Quantitative Objectives for the Process
Establish and maintain quantitative objectives for the project monitoring and control process, which address quality and process performance, based on customer needs and business objectives.
GP 4.2 Stabilize Subprocess Performance
Stabilize the performance of one or more subprocesses to determine the ability of the project monitoring and control process to achieve the established quantitative quality and process-performance objectives.
GG 5 Institutionalize an Optimizing Process
The process is institutionalized as an optimizing process.
GP 5.1 Ensure Continuous Process Improvement
Ensure continuous improvement of the project monitoring and control process in fulfilling the relevant business objectives of the organization.
GP 5.2 Correct Root Causes of Problems
Identify and correct the root causes of defects and other problems in the project monitoring and control process.
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