CMMi - Organizational Process Performance (OPP) Process Area



Organizational Process Performance (OPP)
Process Areas
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Causal Analysis and Resolution (CAR) Configuration Management (CM) Decision Analysis and Resolution (DAR)
Integrated Project Management +IPPD (IPM+IPPD) Measurement and Analysis (MA) Organizational Innovation and Deployment (OID)
Organizational Process Definition +IPPD (OPD+IPPD) Organizational Process Focus (OPF) Organizational Process Performance (OPP)
Organizational Training (OT) Product Integration (PI) Project Monitoring and Control (PMC)
Project Planning (PP) Process and Product Quality Assurance (PPQA) Quantitative Project Management (QPM)
Requirements Development (RD) Requirements Management (REQM) Risk Management (RSKM)
Supplier Agreement Management (SAM) Technical Solution (TS) Validation (VAL)
. Verification (VER) .
The CMMi Easy button notes on Organizational Process Performance (OPP) Organizational Process Performance (OPP) purpose and introductory notes
Specific Goals and Practices
Specific Goal 1 (SG 1) Establish Performance Baselines and Models (SP 1.*)
SP 1.1 Select Processes SP 1.2 Establish Process-Performance Measures SP 1.3 Establish Quality and Process-Performance Objectives SP 1.4 Establish Process-Performance Baselines
SP 1.5 Establish Process-Performance Models . . .
Generic Goals and Practices
Generic Goal 1 (GG 1) Achieve Specific Goals, Generic Practices (GP 1.*)
GP 1.1 Perform Specific Practices . . .
Generic Goal 2 (GG 2) Institutionalize a Managed Process, Generic Practices (GP 2.*)
GP 2.1 Establish an Organizational Policy GP 2.2 Plan the Process GP 2.3 Provide Resources GP 2.4 Assign Responsibility
GP 2.5 Train People GP 2.6 Manage Configurations GP 2.7 Identify and Involve Relevant Stakeholders GP 2.8 Monitor and Control the Process
GP 2.9 Objectively Evaluate Adherence GP 2.10 Review Status with Higher Level Management . .
Generic Goal 3 (GG 3) Institutionalize a Defined Process, Generic Practices (GP 3.*)
GP 3.1 Establish a Defined Process GP 3.2 Collect Improvement Information . .
Generic Goal 4 (GG 4) Institutionalize a Quantitatively Managed Process, Generic Practices (GP 4.*)
GP 4.1 Establish Quantitative Objectives for the Process GP 4.2 Stabilize Subprocess Performance . .
Generic Goal 5 (GG 5) Institutionalize an Optimizing Process, Generic Practices (GP 5.*)
GP 5.1 Ensure Continuous Process Improvement GP 5.2 Correct Root Causes of Problems . .

The CMMi Easy button notes on Organizational Process Performance (OPP) Process Area

Provides a view of how well the processes are performing. This process area provides input into the Quantitative Project Management process area. Organizational Process Performance (OPP) has to understand how to measure the results achieved by following a given process. These results could be:-
  • Effort
  • Cycle time
  • Defect removal effectiveness
These process measures can be used as a baseline to an individual project's performance (in order to subsequently measure the Project performance).

This process area overlaps with Measurement and Analysis (MA) and Organizational Process Focus (OPF) but the focus of Organizational Process Performance (OPP) is to understand the relationship (or usefulness) of the process performance measures of the organization. Other CMMi process areas use (or collect measures for) Organizational Process Focus (OPF) but OPF is tasked with gaining an insight or a quantitative understanding of the organization's process performances.



Organizational Process Performance (OPP)





A Process Management Process Area at Maturity Level 4

Purpose


The purpose of Organizational Process Performance (OPP) is to establish and maintain a quantitative understanding of the performance of the organizationís set of standard processes in support of quality and process-performance objectives, and to provide the process-performance data, baselines, and models to quantitatively manage the organizationís projects.

Introductory Notes


Process performance is a measure of the actual results achieved by following a process. Process performance is characterized by process measures (e.g., effort, cycle time, and defect removal effectiveness) and product measures (e.g., reliability, defect density, capacity, response time, and cost).

The common measures for the organization are composed of process and product measures that can be used to summarize the actual performance of processes in individual projects in the organization. The organizational data for these measures are analyzed to establish a distribution and range of results, which characterize the expected performance of the process when used on any individual project in the organization.

In this process area, the phrase ďquality and process-performance objectivesĒ covers objectives and requirements for product quality, service quality, and process performance. As indicated above, the term ďprocess performanceĒ includes quality; however, to emphasize the importance of quality, the phrase ďquality and process-performance objectivesĒ is used rather than just ďprocess-performance objectives.Ē

The expected process performance can be used in establishing the projectís quality and process-performance objectives and can be used as a baseline against which actual project performance can be compared. This information is used to quantitatively manage the project. Each quantitatively managed project, in turn, provides actual performance results that become a part of the baseline data for the organizational process assets.

The associated process-performance models are used to represent past and current process performance and to predict future results of the process. For example, the latent defects in the delivered product can be predicted using measurements of defects identified during product verification activities.

When the organization has measures, data, and analytical techniques for critical process, product, and service characteristics, it is able to do the following:
  • Determine whether processes are behaving consistently or have stable trends (i.e., are predictable)
  • Identify processes where the performance is within natural bounds that are consistent across process implementation teams
  • Establish criteria for identifying whether a process or subprocess should be statistically managed, and determine pertinent measures and analytical techniques to be used in such management
  • Identify processes that show unusual (e.g., sporadic or unpredictable) behavior
  • Identify any aspects of the processes that can be improved in the organizationís set of standard processes
  • Identify the implementation of a process which performs best
Related Process Areas.

Refer to the Quantitative Project Management process area for more information about the use of process-performance baselines and models.

Refer to the Measurement and Analysis process area for more information about specifying measures and collecting and analyzing data.

Specific Practices by Goal

SG 1 Establish Performance Baselines and Models

Baselines and models, which characterize the expected process performance of the organization's set of standard processes, are established and maintained.

Prior to establishing process-performance baselines and models, it is necessary to determine which processes are suitable to be measured (the Select Processes specific practice), which measures are useful for determining process performance (the Establish Process-Performance Measures specific practice), and the quality and process-performance objectives for those processes (the Establish Quality and Process-Performance Objectives specific practice). These specific practices are often interrelated and may need to be performed concurrently to select the appropriate processes, measures, and quality and process-performance objectives. Often, the selection of one process, measure, or objective will constrain the selection of the others. For example, if a certain process is selected, the measures and objectives for that process may be constrained by the process itself.

SP 1.1 Select Processes

Select the processes or subprocesses in the organization's set of standard processes that are to be included in the organization's process-performance analyses.

Refer to the Organizational Process Definition process area for more information about the structure of the organizational process assets.

The organizationís set of standard processes consists of a set of standard processes that, in turn, are composed of subprocesses.

Typically, it will not be possible, useful, or economically justifiable to apply statistical management techniques to all processes or subprocesses of the organizationís set of standard processes. Selection of the processes and/or subprocesses is based on the needs and objectives of both the organization and projects.

Examples of criteria which may be used for the selection of a process or subprocess for organizational analysis include the following:
  • The relationship of the subprocess to key business objectives
  • Current availability of valid historical data relevant to the subprocess
  • The current degree of variability of this data
  • Subprocess stability (e.g. stable performance in comparable instances)
  • The availability of corporate or commercial information that can be used to build predictive models
The existence of project data that indicates the process or subprocess has been or can be stabilized is a useful criterion for selection of a process or subprocess.

Typical Work Products
  • List of processes or subprocesses identified for process-performance analyses
SP 1.2 Establish Process-Performance Measures

Establish and maintain definitions of the measures that are to be included in the organizationís process-performance analyses.

Refer to the Measurement and Analysis process area for more information about selecting measures.

Typical Work Products
  • Definitions for the selected measures of process performance
Subpractice 1: Determine which of the organizationís business objectives for quality and process performance need to be addressed by the measures.

Subpractice 2: Select measures that provide appropriate insight into the organizationís quality and process performance.

The Goal Question Metric paradigm is an approach that can be used to select measures that provide insight into the organizationís business objectives.

Examples of criteria used to select measures include the following:
  • Relationship of the measures to the organizationís business objectives
  • Coverage that the measures provide over the entire life of the product or service
  • Visibility that the measures provide into the process performance
  • Availability of the measures
  • Extent to which the measures are objective
  • Frequency at which the observations of the measure can be collected
  • Extent to which the measures are controllable by changes to the process or subprocess
  • Extent to which the measures represent the usersí view of effective process performance
Subpractice 3: Incorporate the selected measures into the organizationís set of common measures.

Refer to the Organizational Process Definition process area for more information about establishing organizational process assets.

Subpractice 4: Revise the set of measures as necessary.

SP 1.3 Establish Quality and Process-Performance Objectives

Establish and maintain quantitative objectives for quality and process performance for the organization.

The organizationís quality and process-performance objectives should have the following attributes:
  • Based on the organizationís business objectives
  • Based on the past performance of projects
  • Defined to gauge process performance in areas such as product quality, productivity, cycle time, or response time
  • Constrained by the inherent variability or natural bounds of the selected process or subprocess
Typical Work Products
  • Organization's quality and process-performance objectives
Subpractice 1: Review the organizationís business objectives related to quality and process performance.

Examples of business objectives include the following:
  • Achieve a development cycle of a specified duration for a specified release of a product
  • Achieve an average response time less than a specified duration for a specified version of a service
  • Deliver functionality of the product to a target percentage of estimated cost
  • Decrease the cost of maintenance of the products by a specified percent
Subpractice 2: Define the organizationís quantitative objectives for quality and process performance.

Objectives may be established for process or subprocess measurements (e.g., effort, cycle time, and defect removal effectiveness) as well as for product measurements (e.g., reliability and defect density) and service measurements (e.g., capacity and response times) where appropriate.

Examples of quality and process-performance objectives include the following:
  • Achieve a specified productivity
  • Deliver work products with no more than a specified number of latent defects
  • Shorten time to delivery to a specified percentage of the process-performance baseline
  • Reduce the total lifecycle cost of new and existing products by a percentage
  • Deliver a percentage of the specified product functionality
Subpractice 3: Define the priorities of the organizationís objectives for quality and process performance.

Subpractice 4: Review, negotiate, and obtain commitment for the organizationís quality and process-performance objectives and their priorities from the relevant stakeholders.

Subpractice 5: Revise the organizationís quantitative objectives for quality and process performance as necessary.

Examples of when the organizationís quantitative objectives for quality and process performance may need to be revised include the following:
  • When the organizationís business objectives change
  • When the organizationís processes change
  • When actual quality and process performance differs significantly from the objectives
SP 1.4 Establish Process-Performance Baselines

Establish and maintain the organization's process-performance baselines.

The organizationís process-performance baselines are a measurement of performance for the organizationís set of standard processes at various levels of detail, as appropriate. The processes include the following:
  • Sequence of connected processes
  • Processes that cover the entire life of the project
  • Processes for developing individual work products
There may be several process-performance baselines to characterize performance for subgroups of the organization.

Examples of criteria used to categorize subgroups include the following:
  • Product line
  • Line of business
  • Application domain
  • Complexity
  • Team size
  • Work product size
  • Process elements from the organizationís set of standard processes
Allowable tailoring of the organizationís set of standard processes may significantly affect the comparability of the data for inclusion in process-performance baselines. The effects of tailoring should be considered in establishing baselines. Depending on the tailoring allowed, separate performance baselines may exist for each type of tailoring.

Refer to the Quantitative Project Management process area for more information about the use of process-performance baselines.

Typical Work Products
  • Baseline data on the organizationís process performance
Subpractice 1: Collect measurements from the organizationís projects.

The process or subprocess in use when the measurement was taken is recorded to enable appropriate use later.

Refer to the Measurement and Analysis process area for information about collecting and analyzing data.

Subpractice 2: Establish and maintain the organizationís process-performance baselines from the collected measurements and analyses.

Refer to the Measurement and Analysis process area for information about establishing objectives for measurement and analysis, specifying the measures and analyses to be performed, obtaining and analyzing measures, and reporting results.

Process-performance baselines are derived by analyzing the collected measures to establish a distribution and range of results that characterize the expected performance for selected processes or subprocesses when used on any individual project in the organization.

The measurements from stable subprocesses from projects should be used; other data may not be reliable.

Subpractice 3: Review and get agreement with relevant stakeholders about the organization's process-performance baselines.

Subpractice 4: Make the organization's process-performance information available across the organization in the organization's measurement repository.

The organizationís process-performance baselines are used by the projects to estimate the natural bounds for process performance.

Refer to the Organizational Process Definition process area for more information about establishing the organizationís measurement repository.

Subpractice 5: Compare the organizationís process-performance baselines to the associated objectives.

Subpractice 6: Revise the organizationís process-performance baselines as necessary.

Examples of when the organizationís process-performance baselines may need to be revised include the following:
  • When the processes change
  • When the organizationís results change
  • When the organizationís needs change
SP 1.5 Establish Process-Performance Models

Establish and maintain the process-performance models for the organizationís set of standard processes.

Process-performance models are used to estimate or predict the value of a process-performance measure from the values of other process, product, and service measurements. These process-performance models typically use process and product measurements collected throughout the life of the project to estimate progress toward achieving objectives that cannot be measured until later in the projectís life.

The process-performance models are used as follows:
  • The organization uses them for estimating, analyzing, and predicting the process performance associated with the processes in the organizationís set of standard processes.
  • The organization uses them to assess the (potential) return on investment for process improvement activities.
  • Projects use them for estimating, analyzing, and predicting the process performance for their defined processes.
  • Projects use them for selecting processes or subprocesses for use.
These measures and models are defined to provide insight into, and to provide the ability to predict, critical process and product characteristics that are relevant to business value.

Examples of areas of concern to projects in which models may be useful include the following:
  • Schedule and cost
  • Reliability
  • Defect identification and removal rates
  • Defect removal effectiveness
  • Latent defect estimation
  • Response time
  • Project progress
  • Combinations of these areas
Examples of process-performance models include the following:
  • System dynamics models
  • Reliability growth models
  • Complexity models
Refer to the Quantitative Project Management process area for more information about the use of process-performance models.

Typical Work Products
  • Process-performance models
Subpractice 1: Establish the process-performance models based on the organizationís set of standard processes and the organizationís process-performance baselines.

Subpractice 2: Calibrate the process-performance models based on the organizationís past results and current needs.

Subpractice 3: Review the process-performance models and get agreement with relevant stakeholders.

Subpractice 4: Support the projectsí use of the process-performance models.

Subpractice 5: Revise the process-performance models as necessary.

Examples of when the process-performance models may need to be revised include the following:
  • When the processes change
  • When the organizationís results change
  • When the organizationís needs change
Generic Practices by Goal

GG 1 Achieve Specific Goals

The process supports and enables achievement of the specific goals of the process area by transforming identifiable input work products to produce identifiable output work products.

GP 1.1 Perform Specific Practices

Perform the specific practices of the organizational process performance process to develop work products and provide services to achieve the specific goals of the process area.

GG 2 Institutionalize a Managed Process

The process is institutionalized as a managed process.

GP 2.1 Establish an Organizational Policy

Establish and maintain an organizational policy for planning and performing the organizational process performance process.

Elaboration:

This policy establishes organizational expectations for establishing and maintaining process-performance baselines for the organizationís set of standard processes.

GP 2.2 Plan the Process

Establish and maintain the plan for performing the organizational process performance process.

Elaboration:

This plan for performing the organizational process performance process can be included in (or referenced by) the organizationís process improvement plan, which is described in the Organizational Process Focus process area, or it may be documented in a separate plan that describes only the plan for the organizational process performance process.

GP 2.3 Provide Resources

Provide adequate resources for performing the organizational process performance process, developing the work products, and providing the services of the process.

Elaboration:

Special expertise in statistics and statistical process control may be needed to establish the process-performance baselines for the organizationís set of standard processes.

Examples of other resources provided include the following tools:
  • Database management systems
  • System dynamics model
  • Process modeling tools
  • Statistical analysis packages
  • Problem-tracking packages
GP 2.4 Assign Responsibility

Assign responsibility and authority for performing the process, developing the work products, and providing the services of the organizational process performance process.

GP 2.5 Train People

Train the people performing or supporting the organizational process performance process as needed.

Elaboration:

Examples of training topics include the following:
  • Process and process improvement modeling
  • Quantitative and statistical methods (e.g., estimating models, Pareto analysis, and control charts)
GP 2.6 Manage Configurations

Place designated work products of the organizational process performance process under appropriate levels of control.

Elaboration:

Examples of work products placed under control include the following:
  • Organizationís quality and process-performance objectives
  • Definitions of the selected measures of process performance
  • Baseline data on the organizationís process performance
GP 2.7 Identify and Involve Relevant Stakeholders

Identify and involve the relevant stakeholders of the organizational process performance process as planned.

Elaboration:

Examples of activities for stakeholder involvement include the following:
  • Establishing the organizationís quality and process-performance objectives and their priorities
  • Reviewing and resolving issues on the organizationís process-performance baselines
  • Reviewing and resolving issues on the organizationís process-performance models
GP 2.8 Monitor and Control the Process

Monitor and control the organizational process performance process against the plan for performing the process and take appropriate corrective action.

Elaboration:

Examples of measures and work products used in monitoring and controlling include the following:
  • Trends in the organizationís process performance with respect to changes in work products and task attributes (e.g., size growth, effort, schedule, and quality)
  • Schedule for collecting and reviewing measures to be used for establishing a process-performance baseline
GP 2.9 Objectively Evaluate Adherence

Objectively evaluate adherence of the organizational process performance process against its process description, standards, and procedures, and address noncompliance.

Elaboration:

Examples of activities reviewed include the following:
  • Establishing process-performance baselines and models
Examples of work products reviewed include the following:
  • Process-performance plans
  • Organizationís quality and process-performance objectives
  • Definitions of the selected measures of process performance
Examples of work products reviewed include the following:
  • Process improvement plans
  • Process action plans
  • Process deployment plans
  • Plans for the organizationís process appraisals
GP 2.10 Review Status with Higher Level Management



Review the activities, status, and results of the organizational process performance process with higher level management and resolve issues.

These reviews are typically in the form of a briefing presented to the management steering committee by the process group and the process action teams.

Examples of presentation topics include the following:
  • Status of improvements being developed by process action teams
  • Results of pilots
  • Results of deployments
  • Schedule status for achieving significant milestones (e.g., readiness for an appraisal, or progress toward achieving a targeted organizational maturity level or capability level profile)
GG 3 Institutionalize a Defined Process

The process is institutionalized as a defined process.

This generic goal's appearance here reflects its location in the continuous representation.

GP 3.1 Establish a Defined Process

Establish and maintain the description of a defined organizational process performance process.

GP 3.2 Collect Improvement Information

Collect work products, measures, measurement results, and improvement information derived from planning and performing the organizational process performance process to support the future use and improvement of the organizationís processes and process assets.

Elaboration:

Examples of work products, measures, measurement results, and improvement information include the following:
  • Process-performance baselines
  • Percent of measurement data that is rejected because of inconsistencies with the process-performance measurement definitions
GG 4 Institutionalize a Quantitatively Managed Process

The process is institutionalized as a quantitatively managed process.

GP 4.1 Establish Quantitative Objectives for the Process

Establish and maintain quantitative objectives for the organizational process performance process, which address quality and process performance, based on customer needs and business objectives.

GP 4.2 Stabilize Subprocess Performance

Stabilize the performance of one or more subprocesses to determine the ability of the organizational process performance process to achieve the established quantitative quality and process-performance objectives.

GG 5 Institutionalize an Optimizing Process

The process is institutionalized as an optimizing process.

GP 5.1 Ensure Continuous Process Improvement

Ensure continuous improvement of the organizational process performance process in fulfilling the relevant business objectives of the organization.

GP 5.2 Correct Root Causes of Problems

Identify and correct the root causes of defects and other problems in the organizational process performance process.


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