|Organizational Process Focus (OPF)||
|The CMMi easy button concept and disclaimer
Disclaimer: The opinions expressed here are the authors
and do not express a position on the subject from the
Software Engineering Institute (SEI) or any organization
or SEI Partner affiliated with the SEI.
The concept of The CMMi easy button is to be able to
jump start SQA software professionals in establishing an
effective Software process Improvement (SPI) framework that is based on CMMi theories and best practices.
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|Causal Analysis and Resolution (CAR)||Configuration Management (CM)||Decision Analysis and Resolution (DAR)|
|Integrated Project Management +IPPD (IPM+IPPD)||Measurement and Analysis (MA)||Organizational Innovation and Deployment (OID)|
|Organizational Process Definition +IPPD (OPD+IPPD)||Organizational Process Focus (OPF)||Organizational Process Performance (OPP)|
|Organizational Training (OT)||Product Integration (PI)||Project Monitoring and Control (PMC)|
|Project Planning (PP)||Process and Product Quality Assurance (PPQA)||Quantitative Project Management (QPM)|
|Requirements Development (RD)||Requirements Management (REQM)||Risk Management (RSKM)|
|Supplier Agreement Management (SAM)||Technical Solution (TS)||Validation (VAL)|
|The CMMi Easy button notes on Organizational Process Focus (OPF)||Organizational Process Focus (OPF) purpose and introductory notes|
|Specific Goals and Practices|
|Specific Goal 1 (SG 1) Determine Process Improvement Opportunities (SP 1.*)|
|SP 1.1 Establish Organizational Process Needs||SP 1.2 Appraise the Organizationís Processes||SP 1.3 Identify the Organization's Process Improvements||.|
|Specific Goal 2 (SG 2) Plan and Implement Process Improvements (SP 2.*)|
|SP 2.1 Establish Process Action Plans||SP 2.2 Implement Process Action Plans||.||.|
|Specific Goal 3 (SG 3) Deploy Organizational Process Assets and Incorporate Lessons Learned (SP 3.*)|
|SP 3.1 Deploy Organizational Process Assets||SP 3.2 Deploy Standard Processes||SP 3.3 Monitor Implementation||SP 3.4 Incorporate Process-Related Experiences into the Organizational Process Assets|
|Generic Goals and Practices|
|Generic Goal 1 (GG 1) Achieve Specific Goals, Generic Practices (GP 1.*)|
|GP 1.1 Perform Specific Practices||.||.||.|
|Generic Goal 2 (GG 2) Institutionalize a Managed Process, Generic Practices (GP 2.*)|
|GP 2.1 Establish an Organizational Policy||GP 2.2 Plan the Process||GP 2.3 Provide Resources||GP 2.4 Assign Responsibility|
|GP 2.5 Train People||GP 2.6 Manage Configurations||GP 2.7 Identify and Involve Relevant Stakeholders||GP 2.8 Monitor and Control the Process|
|GP 2.9 Objectively Evaluate Adherence||GP 2.10 Review Status with Higher Level Management||.||.|
|Generic Goal 3 (GG 3) Institutionalize a Defined Process, Generic Practices (GP 3.*)|
|GP 3.1 Establish a Defined Process||GP 3.2 Collect Improvement Information||.||.|
|Generic Goal 4 (GG 4) Institutionalize a Quantitatively Managed Process, Generic Practices (GP 4.*)|
|GP 4.1 Establish Quantitative Objectives for the Process||GP 4.2 Stabilize Subprocess Performance||.||.|
|Generic Goal 5 (GG 5) Institutionalize an Optimizing Process, Generic Practices (GP 5.*)|
|GP 5.1 Ensure Continuous Process Improvement||GP 5.2 Correct Root Causes of Problems||.||.|
The CMMi Easy button notes on Organizational Process Focus (OPF) Process Area
This process area relies on the Organizational Process Definition as a reference point for improvements.
Just as the Process and Product Quality Assurance, PPQA, process area can be seen as Software Quality Assurance within CMMi the Organizational Process Focus (OPF) Process Area can be seen as Software Process Improvement.
Organizational Process Focus (OPF)
A Process Management Process Area at Maturity Level 3
The purpose of Organizational Process Focus (OPF) is to plan, implement, and deploy organizational process improvements based on a thorough understanding of the current strengths and weaknesses of the organizationís processes and process assets.
The organization's processes include all the processes used by the organization and its projects. Candidate improvements to the organization's processes and process assets are obtained from various sources, including measurement of the processes, lessons learned in implementing the processes, results of process appraisals, results of product evaluation activities, results of benchmarking against other organizationsí processes, and recommendations from other improvement initiatives in the organization.
Process improvement occurs within the context of the organizationís needs and is used to address the organizationís objectives. The organization encourages participation in process improvement activities by those who will perform the process. The responsibility for facilitating and managing the organizationís process improvement activities, including coordinating the participation of others, is typically assigned to a process group. The organization provides the long-term commitment and resources required to sponsor this group and to ensure the effective and timely deployment of the improvements.
Careful planning is required to ensure that process improvement efforts across the organization are adequately managed and implemented. The organizationís planning for process improvement results in a process improvement plan.
The organizationís process improvement plan will address appraisal planning, process action planning, pilot planning, and deployment planning. Appraisal plans describe the appraisal timeline and schedule, the scope of the appraisal, the resources required to perform the appraisal, the reference model against which the appraisal will be performed, and the logistics for the appraisal.
Process action plans usually result from appraisals and document how specific improvements targeting the weaknesses uncovered by an appraisal will be implemented. In cases in which it is determined that the improvement described in the process action plan should be tested on a small group before deploying it across the organization, a pilot plan is generated.
Finally, when the improvement is to be deployed, a deployment plan is used. This plan describes when and how the improvement will be deployed across the organization.
Organizational process assets are used to describe, implement, and improve the organization's processes (see the definition of ďorganizational process assetsĒ in the glossary).
Related Process Areas.
Refer to the Organizational Process Definition process area for more information about the organizational process assets.
Specific Practices by Goal
SG 1 Determine Process Improvement Opportunities
Strengths, weaknesses, and improvement opportunities for the organization's processes are identified periodically and as needed.
Strengths, weaknesses, and improvement opportunities may be determined relative to a process standard or model such as a CMMI model or International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standard. The process improvements should be selected specifically to address the organizationís needs.
SP 1.1 Establish Organizational Process Needs
Establish and maintain the description of the process needs and objectives for the organization.
Integrated processes that emphasize parallel rather than serial development are a cornerstone of IPPD implementation. The processes for developing the product and for developing product-related lifecycle processes, such as the manufacturing process and the support process processes, are integrated and conducted concurrently. Such integrated processes need to accommodate the information provided by stakeholders representing all phases of the product lifecycle from both business and technical functions. Processes for effective teamwork will also be needed.
Examples of processes for effective teamwork include the following:
The organizationís process needs and objectives cover aspects that include the following:
Subpractice 2: Examine relevant process standards and models for best practices.
Subpractice 3: Determine the organizationís process-performance objectives.
Process-performance objectives may be expressed in quantitative or qualitative terms.
Refer to the Measurement and Analysis process area for more information about establishing measurement objectives.
Examples of process-performance objectives include the following:
The essential characteristics of the organizationís processes are determined based on the following:
Subpractice 6: Revise the organizationís process needs and objectives as needed.
SP 1.2 Appraise the Organizationís Processes
Appraise the organization's processes periodically and as needed to maintain an understanding of their strengths and weaknesses.
Process appraisals may be performed for the following reasons:
Typical Work Products
Senior management sponsorship includes the commitment to have the organization's managers and staff participate in the process appraisal and to provide the resources and funding to analyze and communicate the findings of the appraisal.
Subpractice 2: Define the scope of the process appraisal.
Process appraisals may be performed on the entire organization or may be performed on a smaller part of an organization such as a single project or business area.
The scope of the process appraisal addresses the following:
Process appraisals can occur in many forms. Process appraisals should address the needs and objectives of the organization, which may change over time. For example, the appraisal may be based on a process model, such as a CMMI model, or on a national or international standard, such as ISO 9001 [ISO 2000]. The appraisals may also be based on a benchmark comparison with other organizations. The appraisal method may assume a variety of characteristics in terms of time and effort expended, makeup of the appraisal team, and the method and depth of investigation.
Subpractice 4: Plan, schedule, and prepare for the process appraisal.
Subpractice 5: Conduct the process appraisal.
Subpractice 6: Document and deliver the appraisalís activities and findings.
SP 1.3 Identify the Organization's Process Improvements
Identify improvements to the organization's processes and process assets.
Typical Work Products
Candidate process improvements are typically determined by doing the following:
Criteria for prioritization are as follows:
Subpractice 4: Revise the list of planned process improvements to keep it current.
SG 2 Plan and Implement Process Improvements
Process actions that address improvements to the organizationís processes and process assets are planned and implemented.
Successful implementation of improvements requires participation in process action planning and implementation by process owners, those performing the process, and support organizations.
SP 2.1 Establish Process Action Plans
Establish and maintain process action plans to address improvements to the organization's processes and process assets.
Establishing and maintaining process action plans typically involves the following roles:
Process action plans are detailed implementation plans. These plans differ from the organizationís process improvement plan in that they are plans targeting specific improvements that have been defined to address weaknesses usually uncovered by appraisals.
Typical Work Products
New, unproven, and major changes are piloted before they are incorporated into normal use.
Subpractice 2: Establish process action teams to implement the actions.
The teams and people performing the process improvement actions are called ďprocess action teams.Ē Process action teams typically include process owners and those who perform the process.
Subpractice 3: Document process action plans.
Process action plans typically cover the following:
Subpractice 5: Review process action plans as necessary.
SP 2.2 Implement Process Action Plans
Implement process action plans.
Typical Work Products
Subpractice 2: Negotiate and document commitments among the process action teams and revise their process action plans as necessary.
Subpractice 3: Track progress and commitments against process action plans.
Subpractice 4: Conduct joint reviews with the process action teams and relevant stakeholders to monitor the progress and results of the process actions.
Subpractice 5: Plan pilots needed to test selected process improvements.
Subpractice 6: Review the activities and work products of process action teams.
Subpractice 7: Identify, document, and track to closure issues in implementing process action plans.
Subpractice 8: Ensure that the results of implementing process action plans satisfy the organizationís process improvement objectives.
SG 3 Deploy Organizational Process Assets and Incorporate Lessons Learned
The organizational process assets are deployed across the organization and process-related experiences are incorporated into the organizational process assets.
The specific practices within this specific goal describe ongoing activities. New opportunities to benefit from the organizational process assets and changes to them may arise throughout the life of each project. Deployment of the standard processes and other organizational process assets must be continually supported within the organization, particularly for new projects at startup.
SP 3.1 Deploy Organizational Process Assets
Deploy organizational process assets across the organization.
Deploying organizational process assets or changes to organizational process assets should be performed in an orderly manner. Some organizational process assets or changes to organizational process assets may not be appropriate for use in some parts of the organization (because of customer requirements or the current lifecycle phase being implemented, for example). It is therefore important that those that are or will be executing the process, as well as other organization functions (such as training and quality assurance), be involved in the deployment as necessary.
Refer to the Organizational Process Definition process area for more information about how the deployment of organizational process assets is supported and enabled by the organizationís process asset library.
Typical Work Products
Typical activities performed as a part of this deployment include the following:
Subpractice 2: Document the changes to the organizational process assets.
Documenting changes to the organizational process assets serves two main purposes:
Typical activities performed as a part of deploying changes include the following:
SP 3.2 Deploy Standard Processes
Deploy the organizationís set of standard processes to projects at their startup and deploy changes to them as appropriate throughout the life of each project.
It is important that new projects use proven and effective processes to perform critical early activities (e.g., project planning, receiving requirements, and obtaining resources).
Projects should also periodically update their defined processes to incorporate the latest changes made to the organizationís set of standard processes when it will benefit them. This periodic updating helps to ensure that all project activities derive the full benefit of what other projects have learned.
Refer to the Organizational Process Definition process area for more information about the organizationís set of standard processes and tailoring guidelines.
Typical Work Products
Subpractice 2: Identify active projects that would benefit from implementing the organizationís current set of standard processes.
Subpractice 3: Establish plans to implement the organizationís current set of standard processes on the identified projects.
Subpractice 4: Assist projects in tailoring the organizationís set of standard processes to meet project needs. Refer to the Integrated Project Management process area for more information about tailoring the organizationís set of standard processes to meet the unique needs and objectives of the project.
Subpractice 5: Maintain records of tailoring and implementing processes on the identified projects.
Subpractice 6: Ensure that the defined processes resulting from process tailoring are incorporated into the plans for process-compliance audits. Process-compliance audits address objective evaluations of project activities against the projectís defined processes.
Subpractice 7: As the organizationís set of standard processes are updated, identify which projects should implement the changes.
SP 3.3 Monitor Implementation
Monitor the implementation of the organizationís set of standard processes and use of process assets on all projects.
By monitoring implementation, the organization ensures that the organizationís set of standard processes and other process assets are appropriately deployed to all projects. Monitoring implementation also helps the organization develop an understanding of the organizational process assets being used and where they are used within the organization. Monitoring also helps to establish a broader context for interpreting and using process and product measures, lessons learned, and improvement information obtained from projects.
Typical Work Products
Subpractice 2: Review selected process artifacts created during the life of each project.
Reviewing selected process artifacts created during the life of a project ensures that all projects are making appropriate use of the organizationís set of standard processes.
Subpractice 3: Review the results of process-compliance evaluations to determine how well the organizationís set of standard processes has been deployed.
Refer to the Process and Product Quality Assurance process area for more information about objectively evaluating processes against applicable process descriptions, standards, and procedures.
Subpractice 4: Identify, document, and track to closure issues related to implementing the organizationís set of standard processes.
SP 3.4 Incorporate Process-Related Experiences into the Organizational Process Assets
Incorporate process-related work products, measures, and improvement information derived from planning and performing the process into the organizational process assets.
Typical Work Products
Subpractice 2: Obtain feedback about the use of the organizational process assets.
Subpractice 3: Derive lessons learned from defining, piloting, implementing, and deploying the organizational process assets.
Subpractice 4: Make available lessons learned to the people in the organization as appropriate.
Actions may have to be taken to ensure that lessons learned are used appropriately.
Examples of inappropriate use of lessons learned include the following:
Refer to the Measurement and Analysis process area for more information about analyzing measures.
Refer to the Organizational Process Definition process area for more information about establishing an organizational measurement repository, including common measures.
Subpractice 6: Appraise the processes, methods, and tools in use in the organization and develop recommendations for improving the organizational process assets.
This appraisal typically includes the following:
Subpractice 8: Manage process improvement proposals.
Process improvement proposals can address both process and technology improvements.
The activities for managing process improvement proposals typically include the following:
Some process improvement proposals may be incorporated into the organizationís process action plans.
Subpractice 9: Establish and maintain records of the organization's process improvement activities.
Generic Practices by Goal
GG 1 Achieve Specific Goals
The process supports and enables achievement of the specific goals of the process area by transforming identifiable input work products to produce identifiable output work products.
GP 1.1 Perform Specific Practices
Perform the specific practices of the organizational process focus process to develop work products and provide services to achieve the specific goals of the process area.
GG 2 Institutionalize a Managed Process
The process is institutionalized as a managed process.
GP 2.1 Establish an Organizational Policy
Establish and maintain an organizational policy for planning and performing the organizational process focus process.
This policy establishes organizational expectations for determining process improvement opportunities for the processes being used and for planning, implementing, and deploying process improvements across the organization.
GP 2.2 Plan the Process
Establish and maintain the plan for performing the organizational process focus process.
This plan for performing the organizational process focus process, which is often called ďthe process improvement plan,Ē differs from the process action plans described in specific practices in this process area. The plan called for in this generic practice addresses the comprehensive planning for all of the specific practices in this process area, from the establishment of organizational process needs all the way through to the incorporation of process-related experiences into the organizational process assets.
GP 2.3 Provide Resources
Provide adequate resources for performing the organizational process focus process, developing the work products, and providing the services of the process.
Examples of resources provided include the following tools:
Assign responsibility and authority for performing the process, developing the work products, and providing the services of the organizational process focus process.
Two groups are typically established and assigned responsibility for process improvement: (1) a management steering committee for process improvement to provide senior management sponsorship, and (2) a process group to facilitate and manage the process improvement activities.
GP 2.5 Train People
Train the people performing or supporting the organizational process focus process as needed.
Examples of training topics include the following:
Place designated work products of the organizational process focus process under appropriate levels of control.
Examples of work products placed under control include the following:
Identify and involve the relevant stakeholders of the organizational process focus process as planned.
Examples of activities for stakeholder involvement include the following:
Monitor and control the organizational process focus process against the plan for performing the process and take appropriate corrective action.
Examples of measures and work products used in monitoring and controlling include the following:
Objectively evaluate adherence of the organizational process focus process against its process description, standards, and procedures, and address noncompliance.
Examples of activities reviewed include the following:
Review the activities, status, and results of the organizational process focus process with higher level management and resolve issues.
These reviews are typically in the form of a briefing presented to the management steering committee by the process group and the process action teams.
Examples of presentation topics include the following:
The process is institutionalized as a defined process.
This generic goal's appearance here reflects its location in the continuous representation.
GP 3.1 Establish a Defined Process
Establish and maintain the description of a defined organizational process focus process.
GP 3.2 Collect Improvement Information
Collect work products, measures, measurement results, and improvement information derived from planning and performing the organizational process focus process to support the future use and improvement of the organizationís processes and process assets.
Examples of work products, measures, measurement results, and improvement information include the following:
The process is institutionalized as a quantitatively managed process.
GP 4.1 Establish Quantitative Objectives for the Process
Establish and maintain quantitative objectives for the organizational process focus process, which address quality and process performance, based on customer needs and business objectives.
GP 4.2 Stabilize Subprocess Performance
Stabilize the performance of one or more subprocesses to determine the ability of the organizational process focus process to achieve the established quantitative quality and process-performance objectives.
GG 5 Institutionalize an Optimizing Process
The process is institutionalized as an optimizing process.
GP 5.1 Ensure Continuous Process Improvement
Ensure continuous improvement of the organizational process focus process in fulfilling the relevant business objectives of the organization.
GP 5.2 Correct Root Causes of Problems
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